Creating Tables

 

Contents:


PART I:  Working with Tables in Word

  1. INSERT A TABLE
  2. INSERT TEXT
  3. INSERT IMAGES
  4. RESIZE AN IMAGE
  5. MOVE A TABLE
  6. RESIZE ROWS OR COLUMNS
  7. INSERT CELLS, ROWS, OR COLUMNS
  8. DELETE A SINGLE CELL, ROW, OR COLUMN
  9. DELETE MULTIPLE CELLS, ROWS, OR COLUMNS

PART II:  Components of an Image Table

  1. BASIC COMPONENTS

A. Image

B. Description

C. Source

  1. FIND A WEB ADDRESS FROM SOURCE CODE

PART III:  Saving Images, Audio Clips, and Movie Clips

      1. SAVE AND NAME AN IMAGE

2. SAVE AND NAME AN AUDIO CLIP OR A MOVIE CLIP

PART IV: A Summary of Common File Types

      1. USE VARIOUS FILE TYPES

PART V:  Hyperlinking and File Conversion

  1. HYPERLINK TEXT OR OBJECTS

      2. CONVERT FILE TYPES

            A. Images

B. Image Dimensions and Resolution

            C. Audio


 

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PART I:  Working with Tables in Word

1. To INSERT A TABLE into MS Word, click on the Insert Table icon: , OR go to Table> Insert> Table:

 

 

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2. To INSERT TEXT into a table, simply position the cursor and begin typing.  You can edit or format text that has been embedded in a table the same way you would edit or format text in any Word document.

 

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3. To INSERT IMAGES into a table, click inside the appropriate cell and then go to Insert> Picture> (Clip Art, From File, or From Scanner or Camera):

 

 

When choosing From File, an Insert Picture dialogue box will appear that you will use to browse to the location from which you would like to retrieve your image.

 

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4. To RESIZE AN IMAGE, double-click on the image and select the Size tab on the Format Picture dialogue box.  Make sure that the “Lock Aspect Ratio” and “Relative to Original Picture Size” boxes are checked and simply use the up and down arrows to adjust the height and width:

 

MS Word will only allow you to resize an image in terms of inches.  Image editing programs will give you more flexibility with resizing options.  You can use the Microsoft Photo Editor if you want to specify dimensions in terms of pixels or centimeters. 

 

Read more about standard Image Dimensions.

 

To resize an image in Microsoft Photo Editor, first open up your Microsoft Photo Editor program from the Start Menu by going to Microsoft Office Tools> Microsoft Photo Editor:

 

 

Once the program is open, you can bring your image into it by clicking the Open File icon: , OR by going to File> Open:

 

 

Get to the Resize dialogue box by clicking on Image> Resize:

 

 

Change from Inches to Pixels by using the Units drop-down box and then adjusting the dimensions with the up and down arrows beside either Width or Height:

 

 

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5. To MOVE A TABLE, position your pointer over the corner crosshairs until it changes to a pointer on top of crosshairs:, and then left-click and drag the table to where you want it on the page.

 

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6. To RESIZE ROWS OR COLUMNS, position your pointer over a line until it changes to a double-sided arrow:   , and then left-click and drag the line to where you want it.

 

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7. To INSERT CELLS, ROWS, OR COLUMNS, click in the appropriate cell, (in the case of rows or columns, it would have to be an adjacent cell to where the desired row or column will be) and then go to Table> Insert> Rows (Above or Below):

 

 

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8. To DELETE A SINGLE CELL, ROW, OR COLUMN, click anywhere in the appropriate cell, row, or column, and then go to Table> Delete> (Rows, Cells, or Columns):

 

 

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9.  To DELETE MULTIPLE CELLS, ROWS, OR COLUMNS at once, left-click and drag the cursor over area of the table you would like to delete.  When it is highlighted, then you can perform delete function shown in the above picture.

 

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PART II:  Components of an Image Table

 

1. The BASIC COMPONENTS that you need in your image table are Image, Description, and Source:

 

These column headings can be adapted for your particular project.

 

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A. Image – This is where you place a thumbnail image of each material used in your lesson, hyperlinked to the actual material.  Thumbnail images are used because they are small both in terms of physical dimensions and file sizes.  Thumbnail images:

 

These thumbnail images can be linked to:

 

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Read more about:

 

If your computer does not give you the option to save a picture as a GIF, then you will need to save it however you can save it, and then convert it to the correct format using an image editing program. 

 

Read more about how to Convert File Types.

 

 

B. Description – This should be a brief description of what the image shows.  If the image is from American Memory, then you can use the description provided on its page because you will be providing its citation under the Source column (see below).

 

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C. Source – Here, you will need to provide:

·        the repository (i.e., American Memory – Library of Congress),

AND EITHER

·        The web address from the source code and NOT the search query

OR

·        The digital ID number, call number, reproduction number, and any other identifier from the image’s reference page, along with

·        The collection title

 

If you want to include all of the above, then simply add an extra column to your image table.  You can organize the information in any way you want as long as it’s all there!  You can even change the names of the headings as you see fit.

 

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2.  To FIND A WEB ADDRESS FROM SOURCE CODE in your internet browser, go to View> Source:

 

 

The HTML will appear in its own window.  Simply scroll to the bottom to select the embedded web address, and then copy and paste it into your table.

 

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PART III:  Saving Images, Audio Clips, and Movie Clips

 

1. To SAVE AND NAME AN IMAGE from the internet, right-click on the picture you would like to save, and then left-click on Save Picture As:

 

 

A dialogue box will appear that you will first use to browse to the location where you would like to save your picture:

 

 

At the bottom of the dialogue box, you need to name your picture and to specify the file type; then click Save.  When choosing a File Type, first consider how you will be using the image.  For example, if your image will be posted on a webpage, then it should be saved as either a JPEG or a GIF.  If it will be used in a Word document to be printed and passed out, then it should be saved as a BITMAP.  To read more about File Types, see the table below in Part IV: A Summary of Common File Types.

 

You may not always be given the option to save your image it in the appropriate format.  In this case, you will need to save it however you can save it, and then convert or compress it to the correct format using an image editing program. 

 

Read more about how to Convert File Types.

 

You should save two versions of every image that you compress: the original version as well as the compressed version.  If you accidentally save over the original JPEG you have compressed with its GIF counterpart, there is no way to get back the original, high-quality JPEG from the GIF version of the image. 

 

When you save and name an image, you may want to add a topical identifier to the name that is easily recognizable; for example, “sinatra001_tn.gif.”   Here, we have:

 

As a rule of thumb, it is best to save everything in lower case with no spaces.  This method simply makes it easier for the computer to read and to work with files.

 

2. To SAVE AND NAME AN AUDIO CLIP OR A MOVIE CLIP from the internet, first consider how you will be using the clip that you want to save.  If you will be posting a link to the clip on a webpage, then you will want to save a more compressed file format, such as MP3 (for audio) or MOV (for movie clips).  You will also need to consider compatibility between formats and applications.  For example, PowerPoint most easily accepts MPEG movies.  It will accept QuickTime movies (MOV), but you have to tell the program to open your movie into a new window by clicking the appropriate checkbox.  PowerPoint does NOT accept REAL movies at all.  Read further about compatibility under the section, To Use Various File Types, below.

 

To actually save the clip to your computer, simply right-click on the link to the clip you would like to save, and then left-click on Save Target As:

 

 

A dialogue box will appear that you will use to browse to the location where you would like to save your audio or movie clip.

 

If you are saving a movie clip from American Memory, then you should also save a picture of the filmstrip from its reference page to use as a GIF link on your image table.  If you are saving an audio clip from American Memory, then you should save a picture of the format icon if there is one available (such as the Real logo) to use as a GIF link on your image table.  If not, then be creative in using a picture indicative of available audio.

 

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PART IV: A Summary of Common File Types

 

Extension

Description/ Usage

Size

IMAGES

GIF

Graphics Interchange Format

A standard for use of thumbnail images and many graphics, especially those with fewer colors. 

very small

JPG

Joint Photographic Expert  Group

The standard for use on-line with a web-safe palette of 256 colors.  In most cases, your GIF thumbnails should enlarge to these higher quality images.

small -medium

BMP

Bitmap

Generally used where printing is a deliverable.  Because resizing doesn’t distort the resolution, they are good for inserting pictures into Word documents and working with in Paint.

large

TIF

Tagged Interchange Format

The archival, uncompressed file type.  You can’t use it on-line unless it is available to download– a browser won’t display it.

very large

AUDIO

REAL

RealPlayer’s proprietary streaming audio format.  You need Real software to create these files.

tiny

MP3

Ten times smaller than a WAV, but still very high quality.

very small

AU

The default format for SUN systems (TeamCom, LLC).  Used on some files linked to web pages. 

medium-large

AIFF

The default audio format for the Macintosh.

large

WAV

The default format for digital audio on Window’s PCs.

large- very large

MOVIE CLIPS

MOV

QuickTime Movie

Macintosh’s standard video format for Windows, which is specific to the QuickTime media player.

small-medium

REAL

RealPlayer’s proprietary streaming video format.

small-medium

AVI

Audio/ Visual Interleaved

Microsoft’s standard video format for Windows, which is specific to the Windows Media Player.

large

MPEG

Moving Picture Expert Group

Sacrifices some image quality to achieve very high compression (Scala, Inc), and thus has faster downloading times than AVI (Oktec.com).

very large

 

In most cases, a larger file size indicates a higher quality to varying degrees.

 

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1. To USE VARIOUS FILE TYPES, the first thing you want to do is THINK about is how you want to use the object you intend to download.  You may need to save the file in a different way depending on the software into which you are putting the object.  Different software programs may only allow you to insert (or import) certain types of files (and this may vary depending on which version of the software you are working with).  Look in the documentation of the program in which you want the object to ultimately reside to determine the type(s) of files you need to have (Quinn).

 

For example, PowerPoint most easily accepts MPEG movies.  It will accept QuickTime movies (MOV), but you have to tell the program to open your movie into a new window by clicking the appropriate checkbox.  PowerPoint does NOT accept REAL movies at all.

 

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PART V:  Hyperlinking and File Conversion

 

1. To HYPERLINK TEXT OR OBJECTS, select the text or object you want to hyperlink and then click on the Insert Hyperlink icon: , OR go to Insert> Hyperlink:

 

The following Insert Hyperlink dialogue box will appear:

 

 

Use the dialogue box to browse to the linked object or document.  If it is a web address, then you should copy and paste the URL into the Address bar at the bottom.  The following Keyboard Shortcuts can make this easier:

 

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2.  To CONVERT FILE TYPES

 

A. Images – First, to open up your Microsoft Photo Editor program from the Start Menu, go to Microsoft Office Tools> Microsoft Photo Editor:

 

 

Once the program is open, you can bring your image into it by clicking the Open File icon: , OR by going to File> Open:

 

,

 

and then browsing to find the image on your computer.  You can convert the image type by simply saving the image again and specifying the new file format extension in the “Save as type” bar at the bottom of the Save As dialogue box:

 

 

When you convert images from one format to another, be sure that the format you are converting from is of a larger file size than the format you are converting the image to.  If you try to convert an image from a smaller to a larger format, then you will seriously compromise the quality of the image.

 

For example, you can convert or compress high quality JPEG image to a smaller GIF image, but not vice versa.  You can also convert TIF or BITMAP images to a JPEG or a GIF, but you cannot convert a JPEG or a GIF to a BITMAP or a TIF and expect to gain quality.  The information simply isn’t there in the first place.  This is why you should save two versions of every image that you compress: the original version as well as the compressed version.  If you accidentally save over the original JPEG you have compressed with its GIF counterpart, there is no way to get back the original, high-quality JPEG from the GIF version of the image. 

 

To read more about File Types, see the table in Part IV: A Summary of Common File Types.

 

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B. Image Dimensions – Any GIF thumbnail images that you use should be no larger than 250 pixels wide.  A standard size for thumbnail images is 100 x 100 pixels. 

 

JPEGs, BITMAPs, and TIFs should exceed no more than 600 pixels wide.  The reason for this is that computer monitor window sizes typically measure 640 X 480 or 800 x 600.  To prevent the user from having to scroll to see it in its entirety, an image should not be larger than a computer monitor window. 

 

Resolution – Any web-ready images should be set at a resolution of no more than 72 dots-per-inch (dpi).  You can compress a larger picture, for example, from 300 dpi to 72 dpi using any image-editing software like Microsoft Photo Editor.

 

 

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C. Audio – You can convert MP3 files to WAV files and vice versa, but we are still trying to figure out whether our computers are capable of this without further upgrades or installing any additional applications.

 

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Bibliography

 

“File Types Menu” Oktec.com. 07 October 2003 <http://www.oktec.com/help/file_types.htm#avi>

 

“The MP3 and Internet Audio Handbook” TeamCom, LLC. 07 October 2003 <http://www.teamcombooks.com/mp3handbook/index.htm>

 

“Scala, Inc. – Glossary of Terms” Scala, Inc. 07 October 2003 <http://www.scala.com/definition/mpeg.html>

 

Quinn, Susan.  “Capturing Multimedia Objects (Pictures, Movies, Sounds, etc) from the World Wide Web.” University of South Carolina, Columbia: Susan Quinn, Fall 1998. p. 3